Legal GK: The functioning of District Courts in India
Legal GK: The functioning of District Courts in India

Legal GK: The functioning of District Courts in India


  • What are district courts?

They are courts of the State governments in India for every district or for one or more districts together taking into account the number of cases, population distribution in the district.

  • What is their area of jurisdiction?

They administer justice in India at a district level.

  • The highest court in each district is?

The highest court in each district is that of the District and Sessions Judge

  • When district court is also a court of Sessions?

The district court is also a court of Sessions when it exercises its jurisdiction on criminal matters under the Code of Criminal procedure.

  • Who presides over district court?

The district court is presided over by one District Judge appointed by the State Government.

  • Who is a ADJ?

ADJ is the Additional District Judge and the court presided have similar and equal jurisdiction as the District Judge and his district court.

  • Who appoints the judges?

The judges of subordinate courts are appointed by the Governor in consultation with the chief justice of the High Court of the concerned State.

  • What are the qualifications of a judge?

A minimum of seven years of practice as a lawyer at the bar is a necessary qualification for direct entry level to become a District Judge upon a written examination and oral interview by a committee of High court judges. The appointment of district judges is notified by the State Government.

  • How can he/she be removed?

He may be removed from his office by the state Govt. in consultation with the High court of the concerned state.

  • Describe the jurisdiction?

The District Court or Additional District court exercises jurisdiction:

  • appellate side and
  • original side

In civil and criminal matters arising in the District.

  • What is the territorial and pecuniary jurisdiction?

The territorial and pecuniary jurisdiction in civil matters is usually set in concerned state enactments on the subject of civil courts.

  • Jurisdiction on the criminal side?

The jurisdiction is exclusively and solely derived from the criminal procedure code.

  • What is the maximum sentence a Sessions Judge can award to a convict?

The maximum sentence a Sessions Judge of the district court may award to a convict is capital punishment.

  • Where do appeals from the district courts lie?

Appeals from the district courts lie to the High Court of the concerned state.

  • Who is a Metropolitan session judge?

The district judge is a Metropolitan session judge while presiding over a district court in a city which is designated in the Metropolitan area by the state Government.

  • What is a metropolitan area?

An area is designated as a metropolitan area by the concerned state Government if the population of the area exceeds one million or more than that.

  • What is the power of the District Judge?
  • The District Judge manages the state funds allocated for the development of the judiciary in the concerned district of which he/she is a judge.
  • He is the highest judge at the district level.
  • How is a  District Judge appointed?

If he/she has fulfilled the minimum years of service, he/she can be appointed as a District and Sessions Judge by way of the elevation of judges from courts subordinate to district courts.

  • What are the subordinate courts, on the criminal side?
  • Second Class Judicial Magistrate Court,
  • First Class Judicial Magistrate Court,
  • Chief Judicial Magistrate Court.
  • What are the subordinate courts, on the civil side?
  • Junior Civil Judge Court,
  • Principal Junior Civil Judge Court,
  • Senior Civil Judge Court.






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