What is DNA and what is the meaning of DNA fingerprinting?
What is the full form of DNA?
The full form of the term DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
The term DNA is a chemical name for the molecule that is responsible for transmitting and carrying genetic instructions in all living things.
It is the DNA through which the inherited materials and genetic instructions are transmitted from parents to children.
And a sensual property of the DNA is that it can replicate or make copies of itself.
Where is the DNA located?
Most DNA is located inside of the cell nucleus where it is termed as nuclear DNA however the DNA although in small amount, can also be found in the mitochondria where it is termed as mitochondrial DNA.
What is Mitochondria?
Mitochondria are structures within cells that are responsible for converting the energy from food that is consumed into a form that can be used by the cells.
DNA has a unique molecular structure and is found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
What are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic Cell- it is a simple single-celled (unicellular organism) which lacks a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Prokaryotic DNA can be traced in the central part of the cell which is a darkened region termed as the nucleoid.
Eukaryotic cells- The term eukaryotic means “true nucleus” or “true kernel” referring to the membrane-bound nucleus present in the cells.
It is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound compartments or sacs called as organelles which consist of specialised functions.
What are organelles?
The word organelle means little organ that has specialised cellular functions just as the organs of the body have specialised functions.
What is DNA fingerprinting?
DNA fingerprinting is a method used for the purpose of identifying an individual from the sample of their DNA that is known by looking at the unique patterns in their DNA.
DNA fingerprinting that is also called as DNA profiling, DNA typing, genotyping, genetic fingerprinting or identity testing, in genetics, is the method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of the DNA.
The method of DNA profiling is useful in determining whether two people are related to each other and is used to provide evidence of the biological relatability of a parent and the child.
DNA profiling can be a game-changer in identifying the victims of crime and help resolve grave crimes as it has a high success rate.